Litigation cases are caused by a non-legal use  of industiral property rights by a third side, either intentionally or unintentionally, e.g. by manufacturing a products, which technology is protected by a protective document.

Accordingly, the infringement occurs in the case of the unauthorized use of a protected industrial right. Such litigation cases are solved by a Court of law. The unintentional use of IP rights can be aeasily avoided by providing a search, that can disclose whether a certain technical solution or a denomination is already protected.

Another cause of litigations can be one-sided assumption, that a protection of an industrial property right has been unjustifiedly awarded. This kind of litigations is solved by Patent Offices upon submission of a complaint.